II. Grammar and Vocabulary (26分)
Directions:After reading the passages below, fill in the blanks to make the passages coherent and grammatically correct. For the blanks with a given word, fill in each blank with the proper form of the given word; for the other blanks, use one word that best fits each blank.
Different forms of hospitality (好客)
I am a British woman social anthropologist (人类学家). I once spent a year in Moldova, in Eastern Europe,
(25) ______ (study) everyday life in the country. I stayed with a Moldovan family to see from the inside how people managed their lives. I had a wonderful time and made many new friends. What I observed is of course based on my own experience at a particular place and time.
I often found (26) _______ surprisingly difficult to see life there through the eyes of a Moldovan. This was
(27) ______ the people I met were extremely hospitable and I was treated as an honoured guest at all times. As my hosts, they wanted me to enjoy myself, and not to get (28) ______ (involve) in shopping, cooking, or other domestic jobs. Most mornings I was encouraged to go out to explore the city, or carry out my research, and I returned later to find that my elderly landlady and her sister had travelled across the city on buses to the central market (29) ________ (bring) back heavy loads of potatoes, a whole lamb, or other large quantities of products.
I was often invited to people‟s homes, and was always offered food on entering. Most of the adul ts I met enjoyed inviting friends, family, neighbours, colleagues and even strangers into their homes, (30) ______ they treated them to food, drink, and a lively hospitable atmosphere. Hosts hurried to serve guests as well and as quickly as possible. (31) ______ a household was expecting guest, large amounts of food were prepared in advance, usually by the women. Wine had already been made, generally by the men, (32) ______ were also responsible for pouring it. Unexpected visitors were still offered as much food and drink as the household (33) ______ provide in the circumstances.
How English family life has evolved since the eighteenth century The majority of English families of the pre-industrial age, roughly until the mid-eighteen century, lived in a rural location. Many of them owned or had the use of a small piece of land, and actually all family members were busy with agricultural work in one form or another, usually (34) _______ (grow) food for their own consumption and sometimes also producing food or other goods for sale.
The labour was controlled by the husband, (35) ______ _____ his wife and children, too, had an economic value as their contributions to the family income were likely to make the difference between starvation and survival.
Children worked from an early age, girls helping their mothers, and boys their fathers. School was an occasional factor in their lives. Instead, children learned by doing (36) _______ their parents showed them. Knowledge of caring (37) ______ animals, sewing was handed down from parent to child.
Also, most people engaged in handicraft production in the home, and the family (38) ______ (pay) to work with cloth, wood or leather. In general, this work could be put aside and taken up again when there was a break such as agricultural work.
The process of industrialization in the second half of the eighteenth century and during the nineteenth transformed life for the majority of the population. It was the use of steam to power machinery (39) ______
required large buildings, and it resulted in the construction of numerous factories in many towns and cities. These in turn (40) _______(encourage)migration from the countryside in search of work. If electricity had preceded steam, domestic industry might have survived more fully.
Directions: Complete the following passage by using the words in the box. Each word can only be used once. Note that there is one word more than you need.
Being sociable looks like a good way to add years to your life. Relationships with family, friends, neighbours, even pets, will all do the trick, but the biggest longevity (长寿) boost seems to come from marriage or a(n) __41__ relationship. The effect was first __42__ in 1858by William Farr, who wrote that widows (寡妇)and widowers were at a much higher risk of dying than their married peers. Studies since then suggest that marriage c ould add as much as seven years to a man‟s life and two to a woman‟s. The effect s __43__ for all causes of death, whether illness, accident or self-harm.
Even if the odds are stacked against you, marriage can more than compensate. Linda Waite of the University of Chicago has found that a married older man with heart disease can __44__ to live nearly four years longer than an unmarried man with a healthy heart. Likewise, a married man who smokes more than a pack a day is likely to live as long as a divorced man who doesn‟t smoke. There‟s a flip side, however, as partners are more likely to become ill or die in the couple of years following their spouse‟s death, and caring for a spouse with mental disorder can leave you with some of the same __45__ problems. Even so, the odds favour marriage. In a 30-year study of more than 10,000 people, Nicholas Christakis of Harvard Medical School describes how all kinds of social networks have similar effects.
So how does it work? The effects are, __46__ affected by socio-economic factors, health-service provision, emotional support and other more physiological (生理的) mechanisms. For example, social contact can boost development of the brain and immune system, leading to better health and less chance of __47__ later in life. People in supportive relationships may __48__ stress better. Then there are the psychological benefits of a supportive partner.
A life partner, children and good friends are all __49__ if you aim to live to 100. The ultimate social network is still being __50__ out, but Christakis says: “People are interconnected, so their health is interconnected.”
III. Reading Comprehension(47分)
Directions: For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context.
Who needs sleep?
It‟s 2 a.m. The time when you should be in beds, sound asleep. But pull back the curtains and you might be surprised by the number of lights on in your street Night-time is __51__ just for sleeping. It has become the new daytime, offering us the chance to catch up on everything we didn‟t manage to finish during what used to be our __52__ hours. Now, __53__ sleeping, we can check our bank balances by phone, buy groceries, surf the net for cheap flights or go to the gym.
Such flexibility, __54__, has a price. Our bodies are run by circadian rhythms (昼夜节律), a prehistoric internal clock that regulates when we feel sleepy or awake and affects our body temperature and level of alertness. It makes our brains and bodies __55__ during the day and allows them to recover through the night. So powerful is this clock that even two weeks on a nightshift without break will not __56__ its rhythm, and
when scientists keep human volunteers in isolation, without any indication of what time it is in the day, they still show daily cycles of temperature changes, sleep and wakefulness, and hormone release. But, __57__ working against our body‟s natural rhythm is likely to cause ourselves both physical and psychological damage. Research also shows it may actually __58__ our risk of health problems such as stomach diseases.
Consultant Tom Mackey believes that our normal circadian rhythms are increasingly being completely __59__. “More and more of us are being pressured into doing things at odd hours. This is going to have a(n) __60__ impact on quality and length of sleep. If people don‟t go to bed at a reasonable time, say around 11 p.m., and have between six and eight hours of sleep, they will be unable to concentrate. You need sleep for rest and __61__. If you stuff your mind with information for too long, then everything gets disorganized ---you become __62__ to manage daytime activities.”
The circadian rhythms that run the sleep/wake cycle are as old as __63__ itself. Our prehistoric ancestors would have needed their biological clock to get them out hunting during the day and probably in bed around nightfall to avoid intruders. Our night vision is not as fast as that of nocturnal (夜间活动的) animals ---our natural rhythm was to sleep as the sun went down. The invention of the electric light obviously __64__ that. Like most biological systems, circadian rhythms are not made to __65__. Our internal clock runs a bit longer than 24 hours, hence its Latin name, circadian, which means “about a day.”
51. A. by all means B. on earth C. in no time D. to this day
52. A. sleeping B. waking C. business D. rush
53. A. in terms of B. regardless of C. as a result of D. instead of
54. A. furthermore B. otherwise C. however D. somewhat
55. A. active B. relaxing C. tiring D. conscious
56. A. form B. destroy C. improve D. recover
57. A. Efficiently B. Proudly C. Continually D. Independently
58. A. minimize B. assess C. avoid D. increase
59. A. broken B. enhanced C. emphasized D. misunderstood
60. A. effective B. negative C. direct D. reliable
61. A. reservation B. resetting C. repair D. replacement
62. A. bored B. willing C. likely D. unable
63. A. evolution B. clock C. mystery D. hunting
64. A. improved B. changed C. speeded D. followed
65. A. measure B. reverse C. regulate D. discover
Directions: Read the following three passages. Each passage is followed by several questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that fits best according to the information given in the passage you have just read.
When milk arrived on the doorstep
When I was a boy growing up in New Jersey in the 1960s, we had a milkman delivering milk to our doorstep. His name was Mr. Basille. He wore a white cap and drove a white truck. As a 5-year-old boy, i couldn‟t take my eyes off the coin changer fixed to his belt. He noticed this one day during a delivery and gave me a quarter out of his coin changer.
Of course, he delivered more than milk. There was cheese, eggs and so on. If we needed to change our order, my mother would pen a note - “Please add a bottle of buttermilk next delivery” - and place it in the box along with the empty bottles. And then, the buttermilk would magically appear.
All of this was about more than convenience. There existed a close relationship between families and their milkmen. Mr. Basille even had a key to our house, for those times when it was so cold outside that we put the box indoors, so that the milk wouldn‟t freeze. And I remember Mr. Basille from time to time taking a break at our kitchen table, having a cup of tea and telling stories about his delivery.
There is sadly no home milk delivery today. Big companies allowed the production of cheaper milk, thus making it difficult for milkmen to compete. Besides, milk is for sale everywhere, and it may just not have been practical to have a delivery service.
Recently, an old milk box in the countryside I saw brought back my childhood memories. I took it home and planted it on the back porch (门廊). Every so often my son‟s frie nds will ask what it is. So I start telling stories of my boyhood, and of the milkman who brought us friendship along with his milk.
66.Mr Basille gave the boy a quarter out of his coin changer _____.
A. to satisfy his curiosity.
B. to please his mother.
C. to show his magical power.
D. to pay for the delivery.
67. What can be inferred from Para. 3?
A. He preferred tea to coffee.
B. He had a large sum of money.
C. He was treated as a family member.
D. He was a famous and popular person.
68. Why does home milk delivery no longer exist?
A. It is forbidden by law.
B. Its service is getting poor.
C. It has been driven out of the market.
D. Nobody wants to be a milkman now.
69.Why did the author bring back home an old milk box?
A. He planted flowers in it.
B. He missed the good old days.
C. He needed it for his milk bottles.
D. He was fond of telling interesting stories.
The communication union
Head of Research
We are looking for a Head of Research to manage the CWU Research Department and Information Centre. You would be required to exercise control of all research work of the department and manage a team of three researchers and four support staff.
The person appointed would be expected to carry out research work of a strategic nature across the range of businesses in which the CWU has or seeks membership and to contribute to the strategic thinking and direction of the union as a whole.
You will need: proven line management skills, especially in managing and motivating a team; good research skills, holding a good degree in a related subject or other similar experience; a high level of mathematical and calculating skills; the ability to produce high quality work under pressure; a commitment to and knowledge of the trade union movement and social democratic politics; and knowledge and/ or experience of the postal and/ or telecommunications industry.
To apply, please request an application pack by emailing [email protected] or by telephoning HR (Human Resources ) on 020 8971 7482. When applying please state your source.
Closing Date for Applications: 4th December 2015
Anticipated interview date: 17th December 2015
No agencies please
70. In which column of a newspaper could we find this advertisement?
71. One of the duties of the person to be appointed is _____.
A. taking charge of research work.
B. seeking membership for the trade union.
C. running a telecommunications company.
D. managing a team of three or four members.
72. If you want to apply for this position, you can do all EXCEPT _____.
A. ask an agency for an application form
B. dial 020 8971 7482 for more information
C. email [email protected] for an application pack
D. send in your application before 4th December 2015
73. Which of the following applicants is most likely to be employed?
A. A chemistry teacher with a master's degree.
B. A clerk from a telecommunications company.
C. A university graduate majoring in computer science.
D. A director from a research centre with a master's degree.
A child's map often provides a much-needed rest for parents too. Time for an uninterrupted phone call, or a rest on the sofa. And naps have to be a good thing for preschools, surely, since they need to take a rest and get enough sleep for their brains to develop. Short naps have also been shown to be good for adults---improving alertness and reaction times.
So it feels counterintuitive for a review of 26 studies to conclude that napping in children over two years of age may not be a good idea at all. The review says that after two years of age, napping is associated with going to sleep late at night, poorer quality sleep and waking earlier. So should we discourage naps in preschool children -even if they really seem to need one?
Although the review talks about the effects of napping on two-year-olds, most of the evidence in review actually comes from studies on three-year-olds. Also, the authors of the view article are clear that the research on children‟s naps is of poor quality; some studies rely on parents‟ remembering how much their children slept, or are for very short periods.
A study published in the journal of attention disorders in February suffers from some methodological shortcomings (for instance small numbers --only 28 children between the ages of three and four, and only for five days), but is at least a randomized (任意的) controlled trial, using actigraphs (活动记录仪) worn on the wrist to objectively measure sleep. It found that children who missed their naps slept better at night and scored higher in studies of memory and attention.
Dr Mark Mahone, one of the authors, says that sleep at night may be of a better quality than during daytime napping. Having a sound sleep at night, he says, provides a greater proportion of the slow-wave, restorative sleep that promotes brain development and reinforces what has been learned the day before. The study also found that the children who went without naps did not sleep more at weekends.
I could never get my children to nap, but for parents who can, there is no reason to stop. Mahone says that more research is needed before anyone starts making recommendation, and children‟s sleep requirements are known to be variable.
74.The word ‘’counterintuitive‟‟ in para. 2 most probably means _____.
75.What does the author think of the study published in Attention Disoders?
A. Its objects are too young to take the test
B. Its findings are reliable due to the actigraphs
C. It has enough objects to produce the results
D. It provides various ways to help adults to take naps
76.According to Dr Mark Mahone, a better-quality night sleep will result in ______.
A. frequent rests on the sofa
B. higher efficiency of learning
C. more serious attention disorder
D. fewer daytime naps at weekends
77.The author talks mainly about his or her_______.
A. opinions on whether children needs naps
B. various systemic studies on children‟s naps
C. comments on some studies on children‟s naps
D. understanding of the functions of children‟s naps
Directions: Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words.
Are bees happier in cities?
We often think of them as living happily in wildflower meadows (草场) and rolling fields. But new research suggests Britain‟s bees are happier near towns and cities.
A new study of wildlife sites across four English counties has found that most are home to fewer species of bee today than they were in the past. It found that the expansion of farmland has actually been more damaging to Britain‟s bee population than the concreting over (铺设混凝土) of the countryside for housing. For instance, meadows near Milton Keynes now boast more species of bee than sites in more rural areas.
Reading University researcher Dr Deepa Senapathi believes intensive agriculture is to blame. Climate change could be destroying the relationship between bees and plants. That's according to a study that said warmer springs can change the life cycles of bees, which can throw them out of the plants they rely on. The research is the first clear example of the potential for climate change to destroy such critical relationships between species.
While the gardens, parks and churchyards of towns and cities provide bees with a variety of plants to forage on and an extended flowering season, popular crops such as oilseed rape only bloom for a few weeks.
Dr senapathi said: …While concreting over the countryside may appear to be bad news for nature, we‟ve found that progressive urbanization may be much less damaging than intensive agriculture.
Urban areas may benefit bees more than farmland by providing a wide variety of flowering plants and an extended flowering season, according to the researcher.
“Over the past century rural landscapes in Britain have become increasingly dominated by large expanses of monoculture - the growing of a single type of plant, which has helped boost crop production. But without a mixture of habitat and food sources, rural areas can sometimes be little better than green deserts for biodiversity (生物多样性).”
Scientists around the country are trying to work out why populations of bees and other insects are falling. Pesticides, climate change and disease may, like intensive farming, be playing a role.
(Note: Answer the questions or complete the statements in NO MORE THAN TEN WORDS)
78. According to the new study of wildlife sites across four English countries, the number of bee species
79. According to Dr Senapathi, the development of cities causes __________________to bees than farmlands in suburbs.
80. What are the two advantages of urban areas over farmland when it comes to housing for bees?
81. Green deserts in the passage refers to the place where there is ______________________
Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, using the word given in the brackets.
5. 课间做作业不仅对健康不利并且还会降低学习效率,所以我们应该去操场上走走放松身心 。(harmful) II. Writing
Directions: Write an English composition in 120 to 150 words according to the instructions given below.
假设你学校的外教老师组织了寒假志愿活动,你因为某些原因无法参与 。请给外教老师写一封请假说明,希望能获得批准 。你的请假说明应该包括:
3) 你希望能得到批准 。
25.studying 26. It 27. Because 28. Involved 29. To bring 30. Where 31.when/as 32.who 33.could 34.growing 35.even though/even if 36.what
37.for 38.was paid 39.that 40.encouraged
41-50: EJFDK BCIHG
51-65: CBDCA BCDAB CDABA
80.varieties of flowering plants and an extended flowering season.
81.no mixture of habitat or food sources
I . Translation
1.Students should raise hands to answer questions in class.
2.The teacher suggested I should read English aloud for half an hour every morning
3.after asking the delivery man, he was informed the present he bought on the internet would arrive in three days.
4.What the researchers care about is how to make good use of mobile phones to hekp students solve learning difficulties and search for information.
5. Doing homework during breaks not only is harmful for one‟s health but also
Reduces learning efficiency, so we should take a walk to relax ourselves on the playground.